An Annotated Bibliography of Scottish Heraldic Materials
compiled by
© Leslie A. Schweitzer and David Hunter of Montlaw


This bibliography discusses various sources of information on Scots heraldry. It includes facsimiles of heraldic manuscripts, both generated in Scotland and outside of Scotland (but including Scottish materials.) It also includes a variety of heraldic treatises. Some journals, which often have articles of interest, are discussed at the end of the article.

Both authors have personal research interests in Medieval and Renaissance heraldry, and thus, this bibliography will be more comprehensive when covering these time periods than in the later time periods.

This bibliography does not include works on Scottish onomastics, or the vast wealth of materials which are largely on English heraldry but which make passing references to Scots heraldry. The bibliography also does not include books on the heraldry of single families.  Similarly, while many genealogical books and periodicals make passing reference to heraldry, they are not included in the bibliography unless they are of significant heraldic interest.

The materials are organized alphabetically by the author’s surname. If an ISBN or ISSN number is available, this has been provided in order to assist the reader in obtaining these materials.

Clan Books

Many, many books have been written about the clans of Scotland. Most are in a dictionary form, where each clan has a listing containing the history of the clan, and perhaps some information about the etymology of the name, tartans, mottoes, clan badges and chief’s arms.

It is our experience that, with some notable exceptions, these books are not useful for the serious researcher. They tend to emphasize colorful legend over greyer, but accurate, fact. As a class, they also tend to imply that certain elements of modern clan insignia or dress are of greater antiquity than seems historically accurate.

This bibliography lists the clan books we have found to be most useful. No judgment should be implied by the omission of a clan book from this bibliography.


The Bibliography

Books and Pamphlets

Adams, F. and Innes of Learney, Sir Thomas, The Clans, Septs and Regiments of the Scottish Highlands, (Johnston and Bacon, Stirling, 1970 (8th edition)) (ISBN: 0 7179 4500 6)

An extensive discussion of the clan system, clan structure, and Celtic culture. While the clans of the Highlands are each given roughly a page of discussion, the primary aim of the volume is a much broader focus on the clan as a social system. This volume does not address any of the clans which are located in the lowlands. The volume does contain a useful discussion of the law as it applies to clan matters, especially the succession to the chiefship. In addition, there are useful discussions of the surnames and designations of various clans and in clan groups.

Heraldic information is provided for most of the clans, in the form of a black and white line drawing of the arms and a blazon. The motto, achievement elements and Lyon Register matriculation information are also discussed as applicable.

Adam-Even, P., annotator, Gelre, (Jan von Helmont, Leuven, 1992) (ISBN 90-74318-03-7)

This armorial was compiled between 1370 and 1414 by the Gelre Herald, Claes Heinenzoon. The Scots section appears to date from 1385. The arms are primarily from the Edinburgh area. The arms of the Earl of Angus are present in the English section of this Armorial as well.

This edition has black and white photographs of the entire roll. It includes French blazons for all the armory and the names of the owners of all the arms (in Flemish spellings of the armory's owners.) It also includes references to other sources where the armory can be found, a directory showing the arms found in various countries, and some discussion of the Roll, mostly in French. The foreword is in French, Flemish and English.

The indexing takes a bit of practice to use easily. Each coat of arms is given a unique number in the blazon section. The numbers are sequential, but are not provided on the pages where the photographs are provided. In order to identify a particular escutcheon in the photograph, one must turn to the blazon index, find the appropriate folio number, and from there locate the correct shield by matching the blazon with the emblazon. The numbers are allocated in order from top left to bottom right, but that is not always a clear ordering in Gelre, given the way the shields are positioned on each folio.

Note: see also Stodart, for more information on Gelre.

Balfour Paul, Sir James, An Ordinary of Arms (2nd Edition) [1672-1901], (Genealogical Publishing Co, Baltimore, 1903 reprinted 1969)

Reid of Robertland, David and Wilson, Vivien, An Ordinary of Arms, vol. 2 [1902-1973], (Lyon Office, Edinburgh 1977) (ISBN: 0 9505299 0 7)

These are ordinaries of all arms that have been matriculated in the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland ("the Lyon Register") since its origin in 1672 to 1973. Each coat of arms is included in the ordinary once. However, quartered arms are divided so that each unique quarter is listed independently. Each armory is indexed only by the primary charge on the field. The entry lists the blazon of the arms, the person to whom the arms are matriculated and the year of matriculation. Volume 2 also references to the volume and page in the Lyon register where the matriculation may be found. Crests, supporters, mottoes, and badges are not included in these volumes.

Balfour Paul, Sir James, Heraldry in Relation to Scottish History and Art, (David Douglas, Edinburgh, 1900)

A very interesting book by the then-Lord Lyon King of Arms. The book has six chapters, each representing one of the 1898 Rhind Lectures in Archaeology. The writing style is both clear and conversational.

The book covers the following topics:
·         Basic introduction to the grammar of heraldry (a small portion of the book).
·         How Heraldry reflects the history and culture of Scotland.
·         Heraldic design trends in Scotland (brief discussion of charge, tincture and design trends).
·         The history of the heraldic offices in Scotland and their holders.
·         Discussion of Heraldic Authors.
·         Important Heraldic Manuscripts.
·         The Art of Heraldry (philosophy of heraldic art).
·         Heraldry as Ornament.

Burnett, Charles J. and Bennett, Helen, The Green Mantle: A Celebration of the Revival in 1687 of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle (National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1987) (ISBN: 0 948636 07 6)

This is a short history of the Order of the Thistle produced in conjunction with an exhibition held in 1987. It features many examples of the insignia of the Order, both in terms of heraldic display and of actual objects.

Burnett, Charles J. and Tabraham, Christopher, The Honours of Scotland: The Story of the Scottish Crown Jewels (Historic Scotland, Edinburgh, 1993) (ISBN: 0 7480 0626 5)

A history of the Honours of Scotland: the Crown, the Scepter and the Sword. It describes the pre-history, origin and manufacture and present form of each object. It also provides a general history of the honours and how they have survived to the present day.

Burnett, Charles J. and Dennis, Mark D. Scotland’s Heraldic Heritage, The Lion Rejoicing, (The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, 1997) (ISBN: 0 11 495784 3)

A pleasant introduction to Scots heraldry and heraldic art, written in a fashion that will be accessible and interesting to the neophyte but still of interest to others. Charles Burnett holds the position of Ross Herald in Scotland.

The book is very well illustrated. The original drawings by Mark Dennis pay homage to the whimsical illustrations of Don Pottinger in Simple Heraldry. The book also includes many good quality color or black and white photographs of heraldic display, spanning the time from the beginning of heraldry to the present day.

The book discusses the Grammar of Heraldry, Heraldry in Scotland (including the Royal Arms and their history), regalia, the Achievement, cadency, marshalling, Lyon Court, Heraldry as decorative art, and Heraldic Funerals.

Burnett, C.J., & Hodgson, L., Stall Plates of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle in the Chapel of the Order within St. Giles' Cathedral, the High Kirk of Edinburgh (Heraldry Society of Scotland, 2001) (ISBN: 0 9525258 3 6)

This volume provides full color photographs of all the stall plates found within the Chapel of the Order of the Thistle.  The oldest stall plates are contemporary with the chapel’s construction in 1911.  The most recent stall plate included in the volume dates to 2000.  There are over 100 stall plates illustrated, each with a full-page picture of the plate.  In addition, facing each plate is a text description containing a blazon of the arms, a brief history of the knight, and a history of the arms.  The volume also contains a brief history of the order, a history of the chapel, and a history of stall plates in general and the manufacture of these stall plates.

Bute, John, Third Marquess of, Scottish Coronations (Alexander Gardner, London, 1902)(reprint: Royalty Digest, East Sussex, 1997)

The best (and essentially only) published discussion of the form of the coronation service used for the Kings of Scotland, from the earliest pre-Christian times to the last coronation in 1651 of Charles II. One of the more useful aspects of the volume is a reprint of a Report by Sir James Balfour, Lord Lyon, from 1628, on the form of the coronation of the Kings of Scotland.

Campbell, Colin, Medieval Flags, (Heraldry Society of Scotland) (No date and or ISBN provided).

A good discussion of Medieval flags, with many Scots examples. Illustrated with black and white photographs of original flags, and manuscripts showing flags.

Campbell, Colin, The Scots Roll, (The Heraldry Society of Scotland, Scotland 1995) (ISBN: 0 9525258 0 1)

This is a color photo-facsimile of a 15th c. Roll of arms, accompanied by blazons and name attributions by Colin Campbell. The names are given both in the spellings found in the Roll, and in the normal modern spellings. Colin Campbell gives an introduction with information about dating the roll, statistical analysis of the tinctures, charges and differencing methods, and unusual features of the roll.

Colin Campbell's statistics must be inspected carefully so the data is not misinterpreted. For example, when tallying tinctures, "No account has been taken of secondary charges, such as the chief and molets in the Douglas arms." This method of statistics may help select 'family groupings' rather than individual armories by removing peripheral charges (a common differencing method) but it also has its drawbacks. The Douglas example, chosen by Campbell, is an example of armory where ignoring peripheral charges might backfire. The main charge of the Douglas family armory is a chief charged with mullets. Some branches of the family have also added charges beneath the chief (such as the best-known branch with a heart under the chief, and the less-famous branch with a lion's head under the chief.) Other branches of the Douglas family continue to use armory with only a charged chief, such as the Douglasses of Lochleven, also in this roll. It is entirely possible that Mr. Campbell has not disregarded the charged chief in this Douglas family, knowing that this is the important part of the achievement. But still, the example shows that these statistics should be used with great care.

Dennis, Mark, Scottish Heraldry: An Invitation, (Heraldry Society of Scotland, 1999) (ISBN: 0 9525258 2 8)

A basic introduction to heraldry from a Scottish perspective.  The pamphlet is well and entertainingly illustrated, primarily with the arms of persons using the charge being discussed. Some of the more useful points, not frequently seen in introductory books, include the display of external addiments for offices and positions, and several series of illustrations showing cadet differencing, for the Campbells, the Hendersons, and the Hays.

Edington, Carol, Court and Culture in Renaissance Scotland, (University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1994). (ISBN 0 87023 034 1)

This book uses the life of Sir David Lindsay of the Mount as the focus of a discussion on the culture of Renaissance Scotland. Lindsay was a significant figure in his day. He is probably best known as a poet; his status as the populist ‘National Poet of Scotland’ was not eclipsed until the arrival of Robert Burns. However, he was also a political thinker, Courtier to James IV and V, and religious reformer.

He enters our realm of study because he was also a herald, whose career culminated in an appointment to the Lyon office. His heraldic and diplomatic career is discussed here, along with his other achievements.

Emblems of Scotland (Heraldry Society of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1997)

This is a short pamphlet presenting a series of five papers by various authors, which were originally presented at a symposium in 1996 sponsored by the Heraldry Society of Scotland. The subjects of the papers include the Lion of Scotland, the Double Tressure, the Unicorn, the Saltire and the Thistle. Each of the papers discusses the origin and uses of the symbol, and occasionally provides examples of non-royal or governmental use.

Gayre of Gayre and Nigg, R., Heraldic Cadency: The Development of Differencing of Coats of Arms for Kinsmen and other Purposes. (Faber & Faber Ltd, London, 1961)

A book on cadency, with extensive Scots examples.

Gayre of Gayre and Nigg, Robert, Heraldic Standards and other Ensigns, (Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 1959)

A general book on flags, which was written with the advice of the then Lyon King of Arms. Discussions of Scots practice ca. 1959 are therefore quite accurate. A fair number of examples of Scots practice are discussed throughout. Illustrations are all redrawn.

Gayre of Gayre and Nigg, R., Roll of Scottish Arms, part 1, vols. 1 and 2 (The Armorial, Edinburgh, 1964 and 1969)

This set is an listing of all persons who matriculated arms in the Lyon Register, volume 1. Unlike the Lyon Ordinaries, this organizes the information by the surname of the person who matriculated, and includes not only the blazon of the arms, but also the crest, supporters, if any, and motto. Finally, it includes the date (or estimated date of the registration). The dates of matriculation range from 1672 to approximately 1804. The volumes do not include the matriculations of non-human entities such as corporations or cities, which were intended to be included in a later volume. Unfortunately, the companion volumes originally envisioned were not published.

Geddes, W. & Duguid, P., Lacunar Basilicae Sancti Macarii Aberdonensis (Heraldic Ceiling of St. Machar's Cathedral), (New Spalding Club, Aberdeen, 1888)

This is a volume concerning a heraldic ceiling in the cathedral in Aberdeen. The ceiling dates from ca. 1520. The arms included in the ceiling include leaders in the Roman church of that period, foreign Royals, and prominent nobles from Scotland. Each coat contained in the ceiling is discussed, primarily from a genealogical standpoint, and illustrated with a redrawing. There is also an illustration of how all the arms are laid out on the original ceiling.

Grant, Frances J., Court of the Lord Lyon: List of His Majesty’s Officers of Arms and other officers with Genealogical notes, 1318-1945 (Scottish Record Society, Edinburgh, 1945)

This provides a list of each known officer of arms in Scotland from the earliest known officer to 1945. In addition, it provides a list of the Lyon Deputes, the Lyon Clerks, and the Lyon Clerk Deputes. It also lists of the known extraordinary officers of arms, both those in royal service and those in service to the nobles of Scotland are provided. Finally, the genealogical notes give the occupation of the officer, the offices held, their parents, spouse, children, and other significant facts, including whether he matriculated arms. The editor was Albany Herald at the time this was published, having just stepped down from office as Lord Lyon.

Grant, Frances J., The Manual of Heraldry, (John Grant, Edinburgh, 1929)

This book is mostly a heraldic dictionary and grammar. These sections have nothing to particularly commend them over other books with similar contents. However, the author was Lord Lyon King of Arms and there are some particularly Scots discussions of some value. The book includes a discussion of the Heraldic Executive, which gives the dates of origin of the various Scots officers of arms (information not otherwise easily available.) It also contains an Order of Precedence as of the time of publication. (The 1929 edition indicates that this Order of Precedence had changed since an earlier edition.)

Grant, Frances J., Memorial Catalogue: Heraldic Exhibition Edinburgh, 1891, (T&A Constable, Edinburgh, 1892)

This is an illustrated catalogue of the first public exhibition of the heraldic arts in Britain. The text briefly describes each of the 1217 numbered exhibits (although many of the numbers consist of several items.) The 118 plates were chosen chiefly to illustrate the artistic aspects of Scots Heraldry. Six of the plates are in color, including a full color facsimile of the earliest known Scots grant of arms. The text does give the full text of several patents of a Scottish origin. The groupings of the exhibits include assorted grants and genealogies, books on heraldry, drawings, heraldic china and glass, seals, armorials from Scotland, England, and elsewhere, insignia of the British orders of chivalry, heraldic book bindings, and stained glass.

Innes of Learney, Thomas, Scots Heraldry, (Oliver & Boyd, London 1934)

Innes of Learney, Sir Thomas, Scots Heraldry, 2nd Ed, (Oliver & Boyd, London 1956)

Innes of Edingight, Malcolm, revisor, Scots Heraldry, 3rd Ed. (Johnston & Bacon, London, 1978) (ISBN: 0 7179 4228 7)

This is one of the most widely available volumes on heraldry in Scotland, and discusses the topic from a historical, legal, and artistic standpoint. Both the author and the revisor were Lord Lyon Kings of Arms.

The book covers the following topics:
·         Scottish Heraldry and the Clan System
·         The history of the Lyon Court and other officers of Arms
·         The Theory of Heraldry in Scotland (how heraldry relates to the culture and perceptions of nobility)
·         A standard Heraldic treatise style discussion of the elements of armory (includes a discussion of Blazon, not always found in general discussions)
·         The elements of the Achievement
·         The Scottish Grant of Arms (matriculation process, the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland, Cadency and Rematriculation, Armorial Succession, etc.)
·         Marshalling of Arms
·         Heraldry as decorative art
·         Name and Change of Name
·         The Royal Arms and National Flag
·         Corporate Heraldry

All editions are copiously illustrated with heraldic art from the Middle Ages to the present day. Heraldic artifacts are illustrated both in photographs and in redrawings. Illustrations of modern heraldic documents are also included.

The illustrations for the first edition of this volume may be somewhat more extensive than those in the later editions. However, the later editions have more current information. For example, the third edition gives a Coat of Arms for the Duke of Rothesay (the senior Scottish title held by the Prince of Wales.) Since this title was untenanted when the first edition was issued, the coat was not included at that time.

The information on how to matriculate arms through the Lyon Court is also more current in the later volumes. We do, however, advise that anyone interested in matriculating through the Lyon Court should procure the Lyon Court’s guide to the matriculation process. The guide is free, and contains the most current information on this topic.

Jéquier, Léon, The Armorial Bellenville (Cahiers d'Heraldique V), (Le Leopard d'Or, Paris, 1983) (ISBN 2-86377-029-2)

This edition provides line-drawing redrawings of all the sections of Armorial Bellenville. For a description of the roll and its Scots component, see the discussion under Colin Campbell's article on the roll. Jéquier also provides discussion and analysis of the roll, in French. The analysis includes a partial Armorial, an Ordinary, the approximate dates of each portion of the roll, geographical breakdowns of the armory, and other information. Jéquier took his attributions for the Scots armory from Campbell's article.

Johnston, G., Scottish Heraldry Made Easy, (Heraldic Publishing Co., 2nd ed., reprinted 1972)

An extremely basic introduction to heraldry from the Scottish perspective.  While the author is to be complemented on selecting almost exclusively Scottish arms to provide examples of each type of charge mentioned, the charges used are not discussed, merely mentioned, followed by examples of blazons (and some illustrations) featuring those charges.  In addition, the blazons as given are not in Lyon Register form, but use the common English equivalent word to the greatest extent possible, so vert is never called vert in the blazons, but only "green."  The serious student, whether looking at the subject for the first time or the hundredth time, would be much better served by beginning to learn from some of the other introductions to Scottish heraldry.

Laing, Henry, Descriptive Catalogue of Impressions from Ancient Scottish Seals (T. Constable, Edinburgh, 1850)

Laing, Henry, Supplemental Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Scottish Seals, (Edmonston and Douglas, Edinburgh, 1866)

An alphabetical listing, by surname, with blazons and some notes pertaining to the seals. Some seals are illustrated. The initial volume covers seals from 1094 to the time of the Commonwealth, while the supplemental volume covers seals from 1150 to the 18th century.

Lindsay of the Mount, Sir David, Laing, David LLD ed., Facsimile of an ancient heraldic manuscript emblazoned by Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount 1542, (William Paterson, Edinburgh, 1878)

This roll was completed by Sir David Lindsay in 1542, the year he was appointed Lyon King of Arms. He had, however, been acting in the capacity of Lyon before that date. The roll also contains other shields that were added later in the 16th c., according to Balfour Paul 1900.

The Roll covers all of Scotland including some Highland entries, as well as some attributed arms and arms of Royalty from other areas of Europe. It is the earliest known extant official Register of Arms in Scotland.

This edition of the roll provides colored redrawings of the entire roll. It includes an index by page giving the names attached to the armory. It also translates other text written by Lindsay (which is necessary since the hand is difficult to read.) It also provides an alphabetical cross-reference by surname, and a very short preface.

Lions and Thistles: An Exhibition of Six Centuries of Scottish Heraldry (Heraldry Society of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1995) (ISBN: 0 9525258 1 X)

This is a small pamphlet briefly describing the objects on display at an exhibition held in 1995 by the Heraldry Society of Scotland. The exhibit focused on Scottish heraldry from the Armorial de Gelre (1380) to the late 20th century. Categories of exhibits included Heraldry used for identity, the Fount of Honour, the Heraldic Executive, and Heraldry for the Living and the Dead. While the pamphlet does not included pictures for all the exhibited items, there are many plates, including eight color plates of the exhibit.

Loutfut, Adam, Deides of Armorie: A Heraldic Treatise and Bestiary, 2 vols, (Scottish Text Society, Edinburgh, 1994) (ISBN: 1 897976 09 7)

A heraldic treatise written in Scots by Adam Loutfut, Kintyre Pursuivant, ca. 1494. The first volume gives the full text of the treatise. It also gives an analysis of the various surviving copies which were used in presenting the treatise. The treatise is reprinted in modern type with a few pages of the original manuscript for illustration. Most of the original illustrations have been omitted in this process. The treatise is written in the Scots dialect of English, not in Scots Gaelic. The second volume provides a dictionary for the Scots and heraldic words used as well as copious reference notes for the first volume.

McAndrew, B, Balliol Roll (New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, 2002)

This is a roll of arms containing the arms of some 36 Scots associated with the Balliols during that period in history.  This is believed to be the earliest surviving roll of arms from Scotland.  It is reproduced in full color in this volume, with a discussion of the age and history of the roll, and of each person who is contained in the roll.

MacDonald, William Rae, Scottish Armorial Seals, (William Green & Sons, Edinburgh, 1904)

A collection of the descriptions of as many Scottish armorial seals as could be identified, both as armorial and as to whom they belonged, in the early twentieth century. The volume contains approximately 3000 seals, arranged alphabetically by the surname of the owner. For each seal, the description contains the name and any offices of the owner, a description of the armorial bearings found on the seal, a transcription of the legend surrounding the seal, the size of the seal, the documents to which it is appended, and a listing of any other works in which the seal is found. The volume also contains 22 plates, containing photographs of 24 seals.

Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, G., Scotland's Herauldrie: the Science of Herauldrie treated as a part of the Civil law and Law of Nations, (Heir of Andrew Anderson, Edinburgh, 1680)

This is the first treatise on Heraldry written from a Scottish perspective. The material is presented in the classic "modern" heraldic treatise format. The text discusses all the necessary elements of heraldry, and provides multiple examples of that elements use, with woodcut illustrations of the arms discussed. The focus is on Scots heraldry, but includes reference to foreign matters as appropriate. It incorporates a legalistic view of allowable marks of cadency, external ornaments on the achievement, and inheritance of armory. This author has been recognized by the Lord Lyon and by justices of Scotland’s courts as "the greatest of [Scotland’s] heraldic writers." Be this as it may be, Nisbet, A System of Heraldry, infra, is of greater use to the average researcher.

Mathew, The Knights and Chapel of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle (Eaglebank Publications, Edinburgh, 1988) (ISBN: 0 95088 980 6)

This volume is concerned with the history of the chapel of the Order in St. Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh, built in 1911. The volume addresses the history of the Order, the architecture of the chapel, the officers of the Order, and the Knights of the Order in 1988. It contains many photographs of the chapel, including all of the stall plates of the Knights alive in 1988. Finally, drawings of the banners of the knights displayed in the Cathedral are provided.

Moncrieffe of that Ilk, Iain, and Pottinger, Don, Scotland of Old (John Bartholomew and Sons, Ltd, Edinburgh, 1983) (ISBN: 0 7028 0668 4)

A poster containing lively depictions of the arms of the chief of name for some 174 clans and 12 territories of Scotland. The drawings are in a beautiful medieval style. It is recommended that other sources be checked, as the depictions of some of the arms may not be accurate (most generally as to tincture used).

Moncreiffe of that Ilk, Iain and Pottinger, Don, Simple Heraldry, (John Bartholomew and Son, Ltd, Edinburgh, 1978) (ISBN: 0 7028 1009 6)

The usual adjectives applied to this book are "delightful" and "charming." A basic introduction to heraldry in a Scottish context with very entertaining original illustrations by Pottinger. The book covers the usual material (charges, grammar of heraldry, cadency, marshalling, etc.)

Moncreiffe was Albany Herald, and Pottinger was a Unicorn Pursuivant at the Lyon Court when this edition was published. Be aware that other editions of this show Iain’s surname in its earlier form of Moncreiffe of Easter Moncreiffe.

Montgomery-Massingbird, Hugh, Lord of the Dance: A Moncrieffe Miscellany (Debrett’s Peerage, London, 1986) (ISBN: 0 905649 81 8)

This volume contains many of the writings of Sir Iain Moncrieffe of that Ilk. The collections are in the topics of genealogy, royalty and peerage, heraldry, Scotland, and things outside Scotland. As is typical of Moncrieffe’s writings, much of the material is fun and lighthearted, but informative.

Moule, T., Bibliotheca Heraldica Magnae Britanniae, (Heraldry Today, London, reprint 1966)

This is a bibliography of heraldic books. It discusses all known English-language books on heraldry and other assorted heraldic materials, including much in other languages, published in England before the reign of Queen Victoria. The Moule index numbers are often used in other bibliographies and references, such as the Heraldry Today catalog. It is an annotated bibliography. The materials covered include all aspects of heraldry, including the ceremonies, and some limited materials on genealogical matters.

Nisbet, A., An Essay on Armories, (William Adams Junior, Edinburgh, 1718)

This essay is primarily on how to combine arms: marshaling to show descent, marriage, tenancy of office, and arms composed by including features from arms of another person into an original coat for various reasons. It is hard to come by, and many of the points covered in this work are covered with equal benefit in the much more readily available Gayre of Gayre and Nigg’s Heraldic Cadency.

Nisbet, A., A System of Heraldry, 2 vols, (T and A Constable, Edinburgh, 1722, reprinted 1984)

A classic standard heraldic treatise on heraldry, organized by armorial features used, and apparently attempting to list arms for every Scottish family, alive at the time or extinct. This is a two-volume set in which the first volume was published in 1722, and the second volume some time later. The first volume relates to items in the arms (tinctures and charges), and the second is almost exclusively on external portions of the achievement as well as an extensive genealogical appendix. The second volume was not written entirely by Alexander Nisbet. A System of Heraldry is one of the most useful research sources for finding the armory of a Scots family. It is also the best readily available source discussing charges used in Scots heraldry.

The index to the volumes is a challenge given the publisher’s liberal treatment of the alphabetical order. Each volume contains a general index and a surname index.

Pastoureau, M & Popoff, M., Grand armorial equestre de la Toison d'Or, (editions du Gui, Paris, 2001)

A beautiful two-volume edition of a 15th century roll of arms associated with the Order of the Golden Fleece.  It contains the arms of Kings, Princes, and nobles of most of the European nations at that time.  Its author was John le Fevre, chief officer of arms of the Order of the Golden Fleece from 1429-1468. This set is the same manuscript as the one described in Pinches and Wood, A European Armorial (q.v.).  The first volume is a complete color photo-facsimile of the roll of arms in full color.  The second volume is in French and contains information concerning the Order, the Roll, and a brief passage about each set of arms included in the roll. This brief passage includes the blazon, the identity of the owner as listed in the roll, and the identity as research has suggested.  This volume is included in the bibliography due to the inclusion of several plates that contain exclusively Scottish armory.  The roll is organized geographically, making the Scottish section relatively easy to locate.

Pastoureau, Michel, Traité d'Héraldique 2nd edition, (Picard, Paris 1993) (ISBN 2-7084-0413-X; ISSN 0242 - 7249)

An excellent book on the heraldry of Europe, with qualitative and quantitative analyses of heraldry in the 13th-15th c. It has occasional mentions of Scots heraldry. Very useful discussions of tincture use and charge use by place, by time and by social class in Europe. While this is not a very useful sole source for Scots heraldry, the passing mentions of Scots heraldry are very valuable in placing Scots heraldry with an overall European context. The book is entirely in French.

Pinches, Rosemary and Wood, Anthony, A European Armorial, (Heraldry Today, London, 1971) (ISBN 0 900455 13 6)

This is a re-drawing of a 15th c. roll of arms.  This is the same manuscript as the one described in Pastoureau and Popoff, Grand Armorial Equestre de la Toison d’Or (q.v.)  The book has an introduction about the history of the manuscript, its author and the Order of the Golden Fleece, and a brief discussion of Polish heraldry.

The re-drawings are mostly in black and white (with a few color examples) and names and attributions are given for the armory.

The black and white re-drawings of the painted color originals are as faithful to the originals as the medium allows. Unfortunately, some important artistic and heraldic  nuances are lost (or inadvertently introduced) due to the reproduction method. With the advances in technology that have allowed the production of a color photo-facsimile of the roll, we suggest that students of this roll familiarize themselves with the details of the artwork using Pastoureau and Popoff’s photo-facsimile.

Pottinger, Don, The Clan Headquarters Flags (The Scottish Field, Edinburgh, 1977)

A poster containing lively drawings of the standards of 55 chiefs who have matriculated standards in the Lyon Register. It should be noted that other chiefs have matriculated standards since this work was published.

Seton, G., Law and Practice of Heraldry in Scotland, (Edmonston & Douglas, Edinburgh, 1863)

This book is primarily a legal discussion of rights to heraldry in Scotland. It is sparsely illustrated, and only useful to those with an intense interest in the legalistic aspects of Scots heraldry.

Stevenson, J.H., Heraldry in Scotland (2 vols) (James Maclehose & Sons, Glasgow, 1914)

A treatise in the classic style on Scots heraldry, with standard heraldic treatise organization. It has nice line drawing and color illustrations. It discusses issues of rights to Arms and legal aspects of heraldry in Scotland. It is more extensive, but less current, than Innes of Learney on this topic.

Stodart, R., Scottish Arms, 1370-1678, (Wm. Paterson, Edinburgh, 1881)

A two-volume set. The first volume gives a brief history of the rolls included, a number of redrawn colored plates, and a list of names in the order in which they occur in the plates. The second volume consists of heraldic and genealogical notes on the contents, and an index to those notes. Stodart often will cross-reference the materials in the rolls, both to this volume, and to Lindsay of the Mount’s Armorial. Most of the rolls are only excerpted, rather than being given in their entirety. The excerpts appear to include some of the more distinctive or unusual armories.

The rolls included are:

·         Armorial de Gelre (Scots portion): See Adam-Even.

·         Armorial de Berry (Scots portion): See Clouston.

·         Forman's Roll: Written by Sir Robert Forman, Lyon King of Arms. Original compiled ca. 1555-1560.

·         Sunderland Hall MS: Written at the time of James VI.

·         Additions to Sir David Lindsay's MS: Additions to the original 1542 MS (see Lindsay of the Mount)

·         Workman's MS: Compiled ca. 1565-66, a very large manuscript.

·         Kings' and Nobility's Arms: Probably written in the reign of Mary.

·         Sir David Lindsay the Younger's MS: Written between 1603 and 1605.

·         Sir James Balfour's MS: Mostly 17th c. but some 16th c. armory.

·         Lyon Register: From the visitations from 1672-78.

·         Earl of Crawford's MS: From reign of James VI.

·         Gentlemen's Arms: Compiled at time of Charles I.

·         Funeral Escutcheons: Compiled from 1687 on.

·         Sundries: From various 16th and 17th c. sources.

Urquhart, R., Scottish Burgh and County Heraldry, (Heraldry Today, London, 1973) (ISBN: 0 900455 24 1)

Urquhart, R., Scottish Civic Heraldry, (Heraldry Today, London, 1977) (ISBN: 0 900455 26 8)

Urquhart, R., Scottish Civic Heraldry 2, (The Scottish Library Association, 2001) (ISBN 0-900649-23-2)

This three-volume set discusses the arms matriculated to municipal entities in Scotland in three eras: before the 1975 local government reorganization, between the 1975 reorganization and the 1996 reorganization, and following the last reorganization.  The first volume is concerned exclusively with burgh and county heraldry from the earliest days to 1973.  The second volume is concerned with the armory following the first reorganization, and ending in 1977.  A clear majority of the entities created had already matriculated armory by that point in time.  The third volume includes those entities which matriculated armory under the 1975 organization after 1977, together with the armory of all entities matriculating armory following the second reorganization. In all three volumes, each set of armory is accompanied by a large scale black and while line drawing of the arms, a copy of the blazon, the location in the Lyon Register where the matriculation may be found, and a text description of some of the more important features of the history of the entity or why the design granted was chosen.  For those municipalities which have not matriculated armory, a brief description of any symbol used is provided.

Way of Plean, George and Squire, Romilly, Scottish Clan and Family Encyclopedia (Updated Edition), (Harper Collins Publishers, Glasgow, 1998) (ISBN 0 00 472223 X)

Way of Plean, G., Scottish Clan and Family Encyclopedia, (Harper Collins Publishers, Glasgow 1994) (ISBN: 0 00 470547 5)

Our favorite clan book, and the only one we use with frequency. It gives a brief discussion of heraldry in Scotland, tartans, and the law of the Clan. For each clan that is a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs, a two-page discussion is given. The discussion includes general clan and tartan history information but also includes information on the arms, crest, motto, supporters, badges and flags of the Chief of that clan. Drawings of many of the Standards by Don Pottinger are included. For those clans that are not members of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs, the volume gives a shorter discussion. This discussion also includes information on the arms, crest, motto, etc. of the chief, or the last known chief, of the clan.

This volume was written with research support from Lord Lyon (Sir Malcolm Innes of Edingight) and the Lyon Clerk and Carrick Pursuivant (Mrs. C.G.W. Roads.) It was also supported by the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. All blazons given in this book are referenced to the Lyon Register.

Each edition is completely revised and updated.  However, the most obvious difference between the editions is the inclusion in the 1998 edition of a page indicating the four chiefs of name who were recognized by the Lord Lyon between the two publication dates.


Coat of Arms, Published by the Heraldry Society 1952- present. ISSN: 0010-003X

A quarterly journal of articles on heraldic and related genealogical matters. Its focus is English heraldry but it also includes, to a lesser extent, articles on heraldry from other parts of the British Isles, and throughout the world. Over its long run, it has had many useful articles on Scots heraldry or heraldry of individual Scots families. The web site for the Heraldry Society, with information about membership in the Heraldry Society and this journal, is at:


Some of the articles on Scottish heraldry in the fifty years of this journal include:

·         Agnew, ygr of Lochnaw, C.H., "The Baronage of Scotland" Coat of Arms, vol. 9, p. 293 (1966-67)

·         Agnew of Lochnaw, C.H. "The Lyon and the Chevron in Galloway" Coat of Arms, NS vol. 3, p. 35 (1978-80)

·         Agnew of Lochnaw, C.H. "The Mount-Lord Lyon" Coat of Arms, NS vol. 2, p. 87 (1976-77)

·         Agnew, ygr of Lochnaw, C.H., "The Pipe Banner" Coat of Arms, vol. 10, p. 83 (1968-69)

·         Agnew of Lochnaw, C.H. "Scots Peerage Coronets" Coat of Arms, NS vol. 4, p. 263 (1980-82)

·         Campbell, Colin, "The Lion of Angus" Coat of Arms, NS vol.1, p. 2 (1974-76)

·         Campbell, Colin, "Recent Campbell Matriculations and Grants" Coat of Arms, vol. 5, pp 34, 72, and 119 (1958-59) (three articles).

·         Campbell, Colin, "Scottish Arms in the Armorial Equestre" Coat of Arms, vol. 12, pp. 58, 115, 171 (1971) (three articles)

·         Campbell-Kease, John, “Knights of the Thistle, or of St Andrew, in Scotland” Coat of Arms, NS  vol. 14, p.327 (2002

·         Crawford, J.M. "Some Views on English and Scots Heraldic Authority Outside the United Kingdom" Coat of Arms, NS vol. 2, p. 157 (1976-77)

·        Drummond-Murray of Mastrick, P., “Differencing for Cadency” Coat of Arms, NS vol. 14, p. 225 (2002)

·         Enright, Michael, "Notes on the Inauguration of the Lyon King of Arms" Coat of Arms, NS vol. 2, p. 7 (1976-77)

·         Forrester, C.D.I.G., "Heraldry and Insignia of the Baronage of Scotland" Coat of Arms, NS vol. 5, p. 157 (1982-84)

·         Gaylor, J.H. "Septs of Clans: the Armorial Evidence" Coat of Arms, NS vol. 5, p. 140 (1982-84)

·         Gaylor, J.H. "New Clans and Grants of Arms" Coat of Arms, NS vol. 4, p. 422 (1980-82), and NS vol. 5, p. 144 (1983) (two articles or letters)

·         Golin, M., "John Buchan’s Heraldry" Coat of Arms, vol. 14, p. 100 (2001).

·         Innes of Learney, Thomas, "Seize Quartiers", Coat of Arms, vol. 1, p 11 (1948-49)

·         McWilliam, John W., "The Royal Arms of Scotland", Coat of Arms, NS Vol. 13, p.17 (1998-2000)

·         Moncreiffe of that Ilk, Iain, “Some Comments on ‘New Clans and Grants of Arms’” Coat of Arms, NS vol. 5, p. 8, 58, and 123 (1982) (three articles or letters)

·         Pye, Roger, "Development of the Pile in Certain Graham Arms" Coat of Arms, NS vol. 3, p. 147 (1978-80)

·         Pye, Roger, "Evolution of the Arms of Douglas of Lochleven" Coat of Arms, NS vol. 3, p. 76 (1978-80)

·         Pye, Roger, "Genuine Piles in Scottish Coats" Coat of Arms, NS vol. 6, p. 229 (1984-86)

·         Pye, Roger, "Heraldry of Clan MacThomas" Coat of Arms, vol. 10, p. 147 (1968-69)

·         Pye, Roger, "More Pseudo Piles in Scottish Coats" Coat of Arms, NS vol. 5, p 124 (1982-84)

Double Tressure, Published by The Heraldry Society of Scotland 1977-present. ISSN: 0141-237X

This is the annual journal of the Heraldry Society of Scotland. Among the journals of the Heraldry Societies which publish in English, this one tends to have the most heraldic material, as opposed to genealogical material. However, because a majority of the issues published have some relevance to the Scots heraldic reader, a listing of these articles is not provided here. A complete listing of the contents of the Double Tressure is available on the Heraldry Society of Scotland’s website at  It is published only once a year, but generally not in the same month two years in a row. This journal has been produced in three series. The old series was a series of four newsletters of the Heraldry Society of Scotland, and contained few substantive articles, although it did have some material on the arms of members. The second series is a single issue "Jubilee Edition" produced in conjunction with the Silver Jubilee of HRM in 1977. Finally, the new series began in 1978 and has produced a single issue each year since then, with the exception of 1998, when two issues were produced.  The Heraldry Society of Scotland maintains a website with information concerning membership and subscriptions to this journal at

Heraldry in Canada, Published by the Heraldry Society of Canada 1966 to present. ISSN: 0441-6619

This is the quarterly journal of the Heraldry Society of Canada. While a clear majority of the contents of this journal are dedicated to Canadian Heraldry, the fact that there are so many of Scots descent in Canada has resulted in several articles on Scots heraldry in this journal. However, these Scots heraldic articles have diminished since the formation of the Canadian Heraldic Authority. The Heraldry Society of Canada maintains a website with information regarding membership and subscriptions to this journal at

Some of the articles of a Scottish heraldic bent include:

·         --, "Eighteenth Century Scottish Hatchments" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 26 (1983)

·         --, "Heraldry of a Scots-Canadian Family" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 4 (1971)

·         --, "Scottish Arms go a-Begging" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 16 (1973)

·         Burnett, C.J., "Badges for the Scottish Officers of Arms" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 22 (1989)

·         Burnett, C.J., "Revival of the Order of the Thistle" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 27, no. 3, p. 5 (1993)

·         Campbell, I., "Scottish Heraldic Bookplates" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 13, no.1, p. 30 and vol. 13, no. 2, p. 4 (1979) (two part article)

·         Carmichael-Galloway, A.S., "What’s in a Name" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 21, no. 4, p. 5 (1987)

·         Galloway, A.S. "The Galloway Lyon" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 6, no. 4, p. 20 (1972)

·         Galloway, A.S. "Heraldic Memories of Early Nova Scotia" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 2, no. 3, p. 4 (1968)

·         Galloway, A.S. "One Family’s Heraldry" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 11 (1974)

·         Hale, R.B., "Glasgow’s Fish Story" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 11 (1978)

·         Hale, R.B., " The Green Dragon Mystery" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 7, no. 3, p. 11 (1973)

·         Hale, R.B., "An Heraldic Romance" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 20 (1976)

·         Hales, R.B. "Royal Fish" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 13 (1977)

·         Innes of Edingight, M., "The Role of Heraldry in the Organization of the Family" Heraldry in Canada, vol.21, no. 5, p. 4 (1987)

·         Kadonaga, L., "Plant Badges of the Highland Clans" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 4 (1983)

·         Kennedy, D.E., "Arms of the Earl of Kinnoull" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 31, no. 1, p. 9 (1997)

·         MacDougald, W.J., "Heraldry in the West Highlands" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 29 (1972)

·         Moncrieffe of that Ilk, Iain, "Scottish Clan Badges" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 27 (1972)

·         Rokeby-Thomas, H.R., "The Armorials of Nairne" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 19, no. 1, p. 3 (1985)

·         Young, J.J. "Scottish Arms and Heirs in Canada" Heraldry in Canada, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 30 (1978)

Miscellaneous Articles

In addition to these treatises and journals, there are many articles in various periodicals and proceedings which may be of interest to the person who is studying Scottish Heraldry. A listing of several of these articles follows. Many of these articles are written in terms of legal rights and obligations, arising from the fact the Lord Lyon is a judicial officer of the Crown of Scotland, and from the fact that armorial ensigns in Scotland are a property right protected by the laws of Scotland. Annotations for these articles will not be provided, except in those cases where the article may be of particular interest to general heraldic researchers. Articles where the title is self-explanatory also will not be annotated.


Agnew of Lochnaw, Crispin, "Conflict of Heraldic Law" 1988 Juridical Review p. 61.

Agnew of Lochnaw, Crispin, "Peerage and Baronetcy Claims in the Lyon Court" 26 Journal of the Law Society of Scotland p. 311 (1981)

Balfour Paul, James, "Notice of Four Ancient Scottish Standards with Detailed Description of the Recently Discovered Marchmont Standard" Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (January 14, 1918), pp. 14-60

One of two articles which contains extensive descriptions of the surviving pre-1650 Scottish standards, both as to design and as to construction. Photographs of the standards are included in this article.

Burnett, C.J., "Contacts between Scottish and English Officers" Tribute to an Armorist: Essays for John Brooke-Little to mark the Golden Jubilee of 'The Coat of Arms.' (London: The Heraldry Society, 2000), pp 36-47.

An examination of the social and official contacts between members of the heraldic offices of Scotland and England between 1370 and 1640.

Burnett, C.J., "The Export of Scottish Heraldic Symbolism" Genalogica and Heraldica: Proceedings of the 22nd International Congress of Genealogical and Heraldic Sciences in Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 1998 pp.339-342 (ISBN 0-7766-0472-4)

Burnett, Charles J. "Funeral Heraldry in Scotland with Particular Reference to Hatchments" Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 116 (1986), pp. 473-559.

An extensive article on the use of heraldry in relation to funerals in Scotland. The earliest funeral so described was in 1329, and most of the funerals date to after 1600. All known Scottish hatchments are discussed in the article, and photographs of most are included.

Burnett, Charles J. “The Use of Symbolism from the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle on the Uniform of Scottish Regiments.” Genealogica & Heralica Lisboa 1986: Actas do 17o Congresso Internacional das Ciencias Genealogica e Heraldica, Instituto Portugues de Heraldica, 1986, pp. 171-178.

Campbell, Colin, 'Scottish Arms in the Bellenville Roll', The Scottish Genealogist, vol. XXV, No. 2 (1978), pages 33-52

The Scots section of the Armorial Bellenville was compiled some time before 1385 and probably before 1379 by an unknown Flemish compiler. It contains armory from south and east Scotland. It is likely that the compiler had never been to Scotland.

This article provides black and white photographs of the pages in the Armorial Bellenville with Scots arms. It also provides a discussion in which the author provides blazons and possible attributions for armory in the Roll for which the owner is not clearly given.

Clouston, J. Storer, 'The Armorial de Berry', Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Vol. LXXII, 6th series, vol. XII, (1938) pages 84-111

The Armorial de Berry was compiled ca. 1445, probably by Gilles de Bouvier, who was Berry King of Arms of France from 1420. The author of the article gives a detailed discussion of the arms. Clouston supports Bouvier’s statement that he obtained information about the arms directly from the bearers. However, Clouston's analysis also indicates some cases in which it appears that Bouvier made mistakes in attribution, or made incomplete notes and attempted to recreate the armory from memory.

This article provides color photographs of the pages of the Armorial in question along with the discussion.

Note: Stodart also includes information about the Armorial de Berry.

Douglas, P. "Scottish Families and their symbols in the Netherlands, or the Coats of Arms of Dutch Families of Scottish Descent", Genalogica and Heraldica: Proceedings of the 22nd International Congress of Genealogical and Heraldic Sciences in Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 1998 pp. 111-126 (ISBN 0-7766-0472-4)

Hannay, R.K. "Observations on the Officers of the Scottish Parliament" 1932 Juridical Review pp. 125-138

"Heraldica", "Arms of Duffus of Claverhouse" Notes and Queries, February 3, 1940 pp. 74-78; February 10, 1940, pp. 93-96; February 24, 1940, pp. 131-133.

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "Armorial Conveyancing," Notes and Queries, February 22, 1941, vol. 181, pp. 128-133.

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "The Armorial House or Family," Notes and Queries, September 2, 1939, vol. 177, pp. 164-167; September 9, 1939, vol. 177, pp. 185-189.

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "Armorial Tailzies in Scotland" Notes and Queries, April 13, 1940, vol. 178, pp. 254-257; April 20, 1940, vol. 178, pp. 272-275; April 27, 1940, vol. 178, pp. 292-297.

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "Diploma of Nobility for De Landa" 1940 Juridical Review, pp. 181-221

This article concerns primarily a Diploma of Nobility prepared by the Spanish kings of arms, but contains references and comparisons to birthbrieves and similar documents prepared by the Lord Lyon.

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "Ensigns-Armorial of Erskine of Linlathen," Notes and Queries, November 2, 1940, vol. 179, pp. 308-311.

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "Heraldic ‘Legitimation’", Notes and Queries, November 23, 1940, vol. 179, pp. 362-365.

Innes of Learney, Thomas "Lyon Office Birthbrieves" Scottish Law Review, vol. 58, no. 694, pp. 165-170 (1942).

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "Lyon Court Procedure" Scottish Law Review, vol. 57, no. 678, pp. 129-133 (1942)

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "The Nature of Armorial Bearings," Notes and Queries, May 25, 1940, vol. 178 pp. 362-367.

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "Processional Roll of A Scottish Armorial Funeral, stated to have been used for the Obsequies of George, 1st Marquess of Huntly, 1636" Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. 77 pp. 154 - 174 (1942-43)

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "Robes of the Feudal Baronage of Scotland" Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. 79 pp. 111-163 (1946).

This is a very interesting article on the design and use of robes of state by the feudal barons of Scotland. It also examines the nature and origin of the chapeaux, the currently recognized symbol of a Scottish Feudal Baron in armorial display.

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "The Scottish Parliament; Its Symbolism and Its Ceremonial" 1932 Juridical Review pp. 87-124

Innes of Learney, Thomas "The Scottish Parliament: What it was, What it was not" 1932 Juridical Review 1 - 24

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "Sir George Mackenzie on Armorial Succession," Notes and Queries, July 5, 1941, vol. 181 pp. 2-4.

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "The Style and Title of "Lord Lyon King of Arms" Juridical Review, vol. 64 (1931) pp.197-220.

Innes of Learney, Thomas, "Transfers of Armorial Bearings" Scottish Notes and Queries, vol. XI, 3rd series, pp. 187-189 (1933).

McAndrew, B.A., "The Sigillography of the Ragman Roll" Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. 129, pp. 663-752 (1999)

Examines each of the surviving seals attached to the Ragman Roll, in an attempt to more completely identify all persons who signed or sealed the roll.  The paper indicates that some 600 of the seals are now identified.  In addition, the paper examines the heraldry found on these seals, and compares it to other sources, especially from early rolls of arms.

McColgan, R.A., “The Arms of the King of Scots and Selected Heraldry”, Genalogica and Heraldica: Proceedings of the 22nd International Congress of Genealogical and Heraldic Sciences in Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 1998 pp. 401-406 (ISBN 0-7766-0472-4)

The "selected heraldry" is Canadian.

Roads, E.A., “Scottish Heraldry Furth of Scotland”, Genalogica and Heraldica: Proceedings of the 22nd International Congress of Genealogical and Heraldic Sciences in Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 1998 pp.461-466 (ISBN 0-7766-0472-4)

A discussion of the propagation of Scots families and their arms to other portions of Europe.

Schweitzer, L.A., and Hunter of Montlaw, D., “Late Medieval Scottish Heraldic Design” L’identitá Genealogica e Araldica, Ministero per i Beni e le Attivitì Culturali Ufficio Centrale per i Beni Archivistici, Roma, 2000 (ISBN: 88-7125-187-3), pp 93-115

A paper discussing Scottish heraldic design from the 14th to 16th centuries.  It give a qualitative and quantitative analysis of tincture use, charge use, and overall heraldic composition.  This article is a companion piece to “Charge Use in Late Medieval Scots Heraldry” found in Double Tressure issue 24 (2001), which goes into greater detail about the various charges used in medieval Scots heraldry.

Southesk, Earl of, "Douglas, Percy and the Cavers Ensign" Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, February 10, 1902, pp 246 - 280.

One of two articles which contain extensive descriptions of the surviving pre-1650 Scottish standards, both as to design and as to construction. This article includes a facsimile of the standards discussed in the article.

10 March 2003



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